Machining with a lathe has unique challenges.

Inconsistencies in surface roughness

Shortened life for cutting tips

Adding a grinding process with another machine

Superoll™ is the answer.


What is Superoll?

Superoll is a full line of roller burnishing tools that create smoother finishes through compressing the surface - without removing material.


Explore example case studies

See Example Cases

Quality and Precision

These hardened and highly polished tools integrate into machining centers to eliminate secondary processes such as grinding and honing, without removing any material.  

A Mirror-Like Finish

Ideal for processing with shorter cycle times to improve productivity and reduce costs.

What is Surface Roughness? How is it Calculated?

Surface Roughness Image Sugino

Surface roughness is the geometrical fine irregularities on the surface of an object. In turning, it refers to the height of the peaks and valleys formed by transferring the tip shape of the cutting. Below, you'll find a helpful surface roughness calculator for Lathe turning.

How to calculate theoretical surface roughness [Rz]

Calculate Surface Roughness

F: Feed amount per rotation (mm/rev)
R: Nose R size of cutting tip (mm)

sugino inspection art

However, does the actual surface roughness match the theoretical roughness in your production site?

Let's explore reasons why they may not match

Why the actual surface roughness does not match the theoretical roughness: 

REASON 1: Build-up edge deteriorates the surface roughness.

Machining under inappropriate conditions causes built-up edges at the tip of the cutting tip.

As a result, the machined surface does not have a regular shape, and deviates from the theoretical shape.

Surface Roughness Calculator for Lathe Turning

Surface property measurement data — machined by
a cutting tip with build-up edge.


"Build-up edge" is the phenomena in which a tiny part of the work piece adheres to the cutting tip edge during cutting, and changes the shape of cutting edge. The slower the feed rate, the better the surface roughness, but the more likely it is that adhesion will occur. Thus, machining with high speed rotation will be required.

Why the actual surface roughness does not match the theoretical roughness: 

REASON 1: Build-up edge deteriorates the surface roughness.

Machining Conditions and Build Up Edge of Cutting Tool
Machining Conditions

Work piece:           Φ30 SCM440

Cutting tip:            Carbide / Nose R 0.4

Coolant:                  Not used

Peripheral speed: 50 -250m/min

Feed:                       0.05 - 0.3mm/rev

Cutting amount:    0.4mm *Fixed

Why the actual surface roughness does not match the theoretical roughness: 

REASON 2: Wear of the cutting tip.

Surface roughness gradually gets worse due to the wear of cutting tip.

Surface Roughness After Machining Data Chart

Therefore, when aiming for Rz 3.2 in mass production — assuming that it will gradually deteriorate — appropriate feed rate will be 0.07 mm/rev, and then required peripheral speed will be 450 mm/min (4,775 rpm).

However, if the cutting speed (peripheral speed) is faster, the tool life will be shortened significantly due to the increase in cutting temperature. In addition, slowing the feed rate increases flank wear, which leads to a shorter tool life.

    Surface Roughness Calculator →

    Enter your values in the calculator below to determine Rz and Ra. NOTE: As a guideline or simple conversion - though with less accuracy - we convert Rz into Ra by dividing into 4.

    Challenges and Solutions

    Explore real-world examples of how Superoll can simplify and improve your process.

    Case Example One:

    Automate Unstable Works

    unstable workpiece


    The workpiece is too long for high-speed machining.  The vibrations at high speed resulted in an uneven finish and surface roughness.

    Conventional Way

    Achieved dimensional accuracy only by machining at a low speed.  But sandpaper hand-finishing was required to meet surface roughness specifications, and uniformity is lacking as hand-finishing varies by worker.


    With Superoll

    No hazardous waste. The process is fully automated which results in a uniform finish every time. Stable surface roughness. Reduced cycle time.

    Case Example Two:

    Reduction of cutting tip replacement frequency
    Surface Roughness Calculator for Lathe machining and burnishing


    Problem:  The cutting tip life was significantly short due to surface roughness

    Conventional Way

    The cutting tip needed to be replaced frequently due to the rough surface texture.


    With Superoll

    Because the Superoll uses compression instead of cutting, the tool life is extended up to four times longer than conventional cutting tips.  This saves time and money. 

    Case Example Three:

    Optimizing the Machining Conditions for Crankshafts

    The benefits of using Superoll in a lathe for Burnishing a Crank Shaft


    A low rotation speed is needed to maintain balance during the machining process.

    Conventional Way

    The necessary low rotation speed required a separate grinding step and the purchase of an expensive secondary machine.

    With Superoll

    Surface stability is achieved without the use of a secondary machine.

    Case Example Four:

    Integrate the Machining and Grinding Process Together

    deep scratch from surface finishing


    Low speed machining leads to edge buildup. Edge buildup leads to scratches. 

    Conventional Way

    Required visual inspection for all parts.

    With Superoll

    Allows the machining to be done at high peripheral speed with a fast feed.  This creates no edge buildup.  No edge buildup = no scratches = no need for inspection.  Saving time and labor costs.

      Comparing Conventional Methods with Using Superoll in your Lathe

      Rough Machining + Dimensional Finish + Surface Finish

      Lathe Machining the Conventional Way

      The conventional way involves rough machining with a cutting tip first, then dimensional finish. From there, a separate process and machine is often needed to achievee the desired surface finish result. 

      Description of conventional machining with lathe and separate grinding

      Lathe Machining with Superoll

      Using Superoll, you can achieve the precise dimensional accuracy and surface roughness at the same time -  and you only need to attach it in your lathe. No separate process needed.

      Visual example of using Superoll from Sugino to achieve surface finish in lathe machining
      Sugino Superoll free tool trial request

      Try the Superoll Tool Trial

      The tool trial program gives you a hands-on way to learn if Superoll works for you. Perform finishing operations in one pass, improve surface roughness, correct diameters by several micrometers, and stabilize cutting finishes.

      We're ready to help you find the right Superoll™ solution


      Single Roller Type - Product Lineup

      For shaft end surface


      For shaft end surface, taper, R surface

      Sugino SR16M roller burnishing tool for shaft taper, R surface

      For inner


      For inner


      For outer groove side


      For inner groove side


      For outer groove bottom


      For end groove surface


      For inner groove bottom



      Acceptable Materials

      Iron and non-ferrous material, including:

      • Stainless
      • SCM
      • S45C
      • FC
      • ADC
      • Copper
      • Brass

      Not For

      • Titan
      • Magnesium
      • Wood
      • Glass
      • Ceramic
      • Plastic
      Get connected to the information you need at your fingertips.

      Get the Superoll App